Realism

                        http://ibiblio.org/wm/paint/realism

Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)

Photo by Nadar

DaumierNadar.jpg
                        Nadar

Lithographs

 

 

DaumierJuly.jpg
«A July Hero» (1831)
DaumierGargantua.gif
«Gargantua» (1831)
DaumierPassé.jpg
«Past, Present, and Future» (1834)
DaumierTransnonain.jpg
«Transnonain Street» (1834)
DaumierL-PVisits.jpg
«Louis-Philippe Visits the French Provinces» (1834)
DaumierLeadActor.jpg
«Lead Actor in a Tragi-Comedy» (1835)
AllisLostExcept.jpg
«All is lost, except the cash box»

DaumierEuropeanEquilibrium.gif
«European Equilibrium» (1867)

DaumierEmpire.jpg
«The Empire Means Peace» (1870)
DaumierMuseum.jpg
«Rulers’ Museum: Whose Turn is it?» (1870)
DaumierPauvreFrance.jpg
«Poor France» (1871)

 

DaumierSmell.jpg
«Smell» (1839)
DaumierCorsets.jpg
«Four Corsets» (1840)
DaumierDemiMonde.jpg
«Ladies of the Demi-Monde» (1855)

 

          

 

«It was […] in 1853 that the crinoline began to be accepted, and it became more or less obligatory: the simplest taffeta dress needed no fewer than seventeen yards of material. […] A woman could hardly get into her carriage […] and her husband had to sit on the box outside.» Joanna Richardson. La Vie Parisienne 1852-1870. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1971, p. 236-237.

DaumierHoopSkirts.jpg
        «Danger of Wearing Hoop Skirts»(1857)

 

THE CRINOLINE

Simon, Marie. Fashion in Art. The Second Empire and Impressionism. London: Zwemmer, 1995.

            The word crinoline originates from a sixteenth-century fabric made of horsehair mixed with cotton or linen. It was used for petticoats after 1840. The uncomfortable material was quickly abandoned, but bequeathed its name to the ringed skirts of 1850, then to the “hooped cage” of 1856. Monsieur Tavernier, the inventor of the “cage”, that curious metal skirt, is said to have been inspired by the iron and glass structure of the Crystal Palace, erected in London by Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Whether or not that was so, Tavernier was considered a man of progress, since apart from considerably lightening the skirt by eliminating the numerous petticoats, his frame could be expanded almost without limit. Its maximum circumference was reached in 1858. (46, 51)

            It became impossible at that time for a man to give his arm to a woman. There was talk of widening doorways, and caricaturists, the most famous among them being Daumier, delighted in showing travellers suffocated by skirts in railway compartments, capsizings caused by a fatal gust of wind or the selective malice of turnstiles. Moralists were shocked by the amount of cloth these skirts required: tens of metres, further augmented by the flounces which were much in vogue up to 1860. (51)

            Paralleling this expansion, sleeves widened in pagoda fashion from shoulder to elbow, to the point of bursting. Bodices ended in a point below the waist and were often embellished with little basques. The shawl and mantelet were indispensable adjuncts to this silhouette, as was a bonnet with front brim, a bavolet and wide knotted strings. (51)

            A turning point was reached in 1865: the volume of the skirt began to shrink. The cumbersome crinoline, sweeping the ground, had conclusively demonstrated its impracticality. (55)

                                

 

DaumierUnpleasant.jpg
«An Unpleasant Aspect of Urban Transit» (1856)
DaumierMereNothing.jpg
«A Mere Nothing…and the Bus is Full» (1862)
DaumierNadarElevating.jpg
«Nadar Elevating Photography to the Height of Art» (1862)
DaumierAdieu.jpg
«Goodbye my dear…» (1844)
DaumierSorrySir.gif
«Sorry Sir, am I in your way? (1844)
DaumierMother.jpg
«Mother in the Heat of Composition» (1844)
Daumier48hours.jpg
«Forty-Eight Hour Absence»

DaumierLawyerPretending.jpg
«Pretending to be busy» (1840)
«My dear Sir, it is impossible for me to plead your case. The most important pieces are missing: money.» (1840) DaumierMyDearSir.jpg

 

Paintings

DaumierBlanchisseuse.jpg

«Laundress on the Quai d’Anjou» (1861-1863 Musée d’Orsay

  Daumierthird_class.jpg
«Third-Class Carriage» (1865)

Metropolitan Museum, New York
DaumierQuichotte.jpg
«Don Quixote and the Dead Mule» (1867)
Musée d’Orsay

     

          

Links

Daumier: A trip to China: choose “Caricature”